3d Models within different industries


3d modelling is widely used in the film industry in things such as Computer generated effects or miniature effects as if they were to make the actual thing rather than model it then it would be too expensive and consume too much time to physically build. Scene such as explosions with modelled buildings would take days to make in comparison to large buildings which would take years to make only for a single scene.

Cloverfield (2008) uses a mixture of live action and Computer generated effects. The head was built as a 3d model and textured for the film and is shown for several seconds. Using a mixture of both live action and CG effects, Cloverfield was able to create a realistic scene in which the statue of liberty’s head rolls into the road.

Another example of models being used in film is with the film Independence Day (1996). The entire city was modeled and tilted for the explosion scene which again created a realistic environment without the audience breaking flow as the models blended in so well with actual footage shot for the film. This would have been very difficult to actually make so modelling this allowed for quickly generated realistic scenes.


Investments have been made into architecture so that businesses can bring their visions to life by using software such as 3dsmax to generate buildings and interiors and use rendering software such as Maxwell and Marmoset Toolbag to create realistic lighting and composition so that it would be difficult to tell what’s real and what is not. By creating realistic renders, the businesses would be able to get a feel for the building before investing large amounts of money into something they wouldn’t be able to see for months. It also helps the architect create the building in the businesses vision so they will be satisfied with the end result by giving them a realistic representation of the building.

Here are some architectural examples which are 3d models;1 2 3 4 6


3D models allow people to create beautiful fantasy scenes which are so well designed they create a sense of realism. They can also be used to show an illustrators vision by taking sketches and making them into photo-realistic renders to give the audience a feel for their vision.

Some examples of this are;

7 8 9

Advertising and marketing

Similar to architecture, a large amount of money is invested within advertising and marketing so by using 3d models rather than tangible objects it allows the model to be altered if needs be and able to create results suited for the advert. For example if Ford wanted to advertise a sports car and wanted it to flip off a ramp then it would be better to do this using models and animation. The reasons for this are so that money isn’t invested in a car which is at high risk of damage. It would also mean paying out for someone who is professionally qualified to do the stunt which would be expensive and inconvenient. Another reason would be that it may take longer to film real footage of the stunt than it would be to create it within Maya and 3dsmax. Another reason a company may want to use a model to advertise their product as they may not have the physical product ready yet.

Some examples of models used in advertising and marketing are;



3d models can be used in science to show simulation of possible events such as star eruptions or to show chemical compounds. This can be really useful when trying to explain something to someone who may not have a clear understanding of the subject at hand so by having a clear demonstration then it can help with the understanding of how the subject functions. Having these as 3d models also allows for the subject to now become interactive.

Some examples of this within the field of science are;


Creating Materials

For this blog post I will discuss how I now go about creating materials for all of my projects. The software I use within my process include Photoshop, Marmoset Toolbag and Quixel suite. Using these different bits of kit will allow me to create a tileable texture which I can generate a normal map, a roughness map and an albedo map.

These are the instructions I follow which I have written into my notebook, following these steps and you will be able to create your maps the same way I have. I have also included how you can enhance your normal maps that little bit more within engine.

Image1 Image2 Image3

Here are two examples of materials I have made. One is with an albedo map, roughness map and a normal map. The other is with the diffuse, roughness map and normal map.

1 2



32 Silver St, Hull. (KFM Building) 09/02/2015

The next building in the works is located down hulls Silver Street and is what currently, I believe, is the KFM building, right next to the Garbos Bar and Grill. I have yet to take any photographs of my own for this building but I will be taking these tomorrow so they will be uploaded within my next post.
I have tried to gather my own research using the internet to see what was previously within this venue but sadly I have been unable to find any information in regards to this so tomorrow I hope to visit the History museum to help clear this up. For now, I thought I would begin designing the basics of the building because these have been around since before the 1960’s so these would feature very similar in the buildings design.

This is where I stand currently with the modelling for my building. After visiting the history centre, I hope I will have a better idea of what the shop face will look like, if not then I will have to improvise by using what it looks like currently as a guide. The building at the moment is around 1,200 polys, I hope that I can keep the figure low so it works better within engine. The design is rather simple, similar to the kardomah building I did for whitefriargate so the techniques are all the same, only thing I did different is save a lot of time by just copying the windows and scaling them accordingly. The model is snapped to grid with the pivot set correctly and is the correct height and width to my current knowledge. I hope to have the building finished in regards to the modelling by the end of the week, then I can spend reading week having it textured.

Silverrender3 Silverrender4 Silverstrender1 Silverstrender2

1960’s Britian

So I thought I hadn’t really posted any information about my research into the 1960’s on a broader scale, as I had only posted what was related to Hull but I feel it is important to understand the 60’s on a boarder level so that we can apply some of this knowledge if possible and I hope that it can help someone else who may be researching into the 1960’s. To sum it up, the British population was at about 53 million at the time.

This decade was known as the swinging sixties and was seen as the decade that birthed British pop music and fashion. One example was The Beatles who had been influenced by American pop bands like Holly and the Crickets alongside other British groups like The Shadows. This decade also saw Psychedelic music which was influenced by drug culture at the time, some examples of this were The Move and Pink Floyd.

Fashion also had its place in the 1960’s Britain with many woman sporting diverse fashion trends which showed how society was changing. Some examples of these were Culottes, PVC Clothing and Go-Go Boots. It was also the decade of the invention of the famous mini skirt which is still in fashion today. In regards to colours and patterns, the 1960’s saw people wearing very colourful and bold shades, some even wearing psychedelic attire. In regards to males, The Beatles had a strong influence on youth fashion and many young men visually reflected their idols.

The cost of house hold items, well, was very different to what we have today. The price of a loaf of bread was the equivalent of 5p and a pack of 20 cigarettes would have cost you about 25p in today’s money. Britain itself wasn’t in any kind of recession but the economy was just about to enter a period of decline. The weekly wage was about £32 which if we compare today roughly minimum wage is about £450. A trip to the cinema for two would have only cost you about 90p but in today’s society you’d be lucky to get a trip to cinema for 2 for less than £10. The best thing about this decade must have been the creation of supermarkets in which people could purchase everything in a single shop rather than 3-4.

For the first time it would seem most households had electricity leading to lots of convince items for the home such as refrigerators and cookers. Some other examples of items found within the home were black and white televisions, rotary telephones and record player stereos. In 1962 we saw the creation of the audio cassette by Philips then later on in 1965 Sony marketed the very first home video tape recorder called CV-2000. The television was a very important part of the 1960’s as this item allowed many family’s come together to watch Coronation Street, Dr Who and BBC 2.

Client Project: Sweet stall

I was tasked to design a sweet stall to go within our client project for whitefriargate, I thought this would be interesting because in my first year I was tasked to design a sweet vendor yet struggled at creating very much in 3dsmax so I was limited to using sketchup to showing my vendor design. I first decided to take a look at some vintage sweet stalls that can be propped up and put anywhere within whitefriargate, something very portable and classic.  I took to Google to find some imagery to help me when designing my stall within 3dsmax, here are some examples of how I would like my vendor to look;

Sweet vendor 1 Sweet vendor 2 sweet vendor 3 sweet vendor 4

Looking at these I wanted my stall to have a wheel, wanted the stall to be thick but not too chunky and also to have several variations of jars. I also decided that for this I wanted to do something a bit more high poly then my other projects to have some variation and to add a bit more quality to my asset.  The first thing I did was start from a box and carefully swift loop around the object to work out where I was going to extrude and drag in order to create the ‘arms’ and ‘legs’ of my sweet vendor.


After this, I created a seperate box and managed to alter the verts to create stands for what the roof of my stall would stand up on. Then I created the wheel of my sweet stall by creating a cylinder with cap segments within it, I then deleted some polys to create gaps within the wheel and bridged up the edges so that these were capped.


When it came to most the jars, I literally started from a cylinder and created cap segments again in which all I simply did is extrude sections of the model to create jars and lids. One of the jars varies this as I also used the inset tool to add some extra polys so I could extrude the object slightly inwards and once I tweaked the vertices a little I was able to create an open jar that the player would simply put their hand in and grab some of the candy.


The next thing I decided to do was to create some candy canes so for this I created a large cylinder and created several height segments within it, I then stretched this out so It was rather long and added a bend modifier to create a candy cane shape, I made sure too add more height segments so the bend was smoother than my previous attempts at making candy canes in my first year.


Finally, for the roof of my vendor I created a box and deleted all the polys under the box as these were not needed. I then used swift loop to create multiple sections within the box and then selected every other vert around the edge of the object, I then moved these slightly up the z axis to create my roof of the vendor.  When I thought all my modelling was finished I decided to ask someone within my group if any alterations could be made to better the vendor, they said it needed to be stretched out a bit more so the vendor was wider, I did this simply by using the scale tool. The only thing left to do on my vendor is to texture it properly and to make sure that the scale is realistic within engine, I will post an update on how this turns out and the finished result.




Gamification is simply applying game mechanics to something which is not usually considered a game. The reason why this is important as it allows the task to become engaging and ‘fun’ rather than boring and difficult. Gamification can be used to help people cope with difficult parts of their lives such as coping with depression or quitting smoking, to other things such as making the wait to cross a busy street less boring or finish reading a book which is hard to enjoy. Websites tend to use aspects of gamification to promote the websites usage and loyalty to that site.

One example of how gamification can work effectively within a website is how it worked for KIDS WB. They wanted to engage a new generation of children interested in the Scooby Doo show in order to give life to a really old cartoon. To do this they set up a way for the child to collect points in order to purchase digital rewards. The children would collect the points by purchasing some kind of merchandise which related to Scooby Doo such as a DVD or a plush and then use the points to purchase digital rewards such as interactive storybooks and other additional games. The reason why this was so effective is that they were able to bring Scooby Doo to a generation which tended to use the internet and other interactive devices and because of this managed to increase sales and market the show to a new audience.

scoobyyy dooooooo

Another website which uses gamification within its business model is the well-known website Facebook, so yes; the website is indeed a game. For example, a user can collect likes which in turn acts as a ‘reward’ despite not actually getting a reward as such you are appreciated and recognized for something you have said. You are able to play games on Facebook in which you can share your achievements within this game on your wall. The amount of friends you have on Facebook to some show your players ‘status’, the more friends you have, the more interesting and ‘famous’ you are seen. You have real-time feedback through seeing what you have been doing on Facebook that day by viewing your activity log and also anything that your friends have posted on your wall. The reason why this is effective is that as Pavlov noted, we are wired to respond to being rewarded so applying gamification within a business model could only be effective.

In order to apply gamification we need to understand the breakdown of gamification, these are;

  • Real-time feedback – Allowing the user to see their progress
  • Transparency – Being able to see a visual comparison between themselves and others
  • Goal setting – allows drive towards particular tasks in which the user is rewarded
  • Competition – creates competition between players giving motivation for improvement
  • Badges – To show other players how well you have done something
  • Levelling up – Shows progression and gives access to additional rewards
  • Teams – Allows the player to team up with another to double up their effort
  • On boarding and mastery – Allows the player to learn as they are using something rather than having to read up before ‘Playing’

A final example of gamification which I have personally experienced is with the retailer GAME. The first thing I saw when observing the website is right at the top of the screen you are able to ‘earn reward points today’. This is adding a reward mechanic as the ‘Player’ would purchase a game and in return for doing this they would collect points which they can accumulate and spend later on.

GAME Banner

Another aspect of gamification seen within this retailer is you are able to collect points and rewards by trading in a game within 14 days of having it, or purchasing a game which is preowned. The reason why the retailer chooses to do this is to again promote loyalty to that retailer. There are other aspects too such as during the Christmas period there is an advent calendar in which you have a chance to purchase a game on offer as long as it’s within the 24 hour time period, if this is missed then another offer will appear for the next day and you will lose your chance at purchasing the game cheaper and gaining those points.

Deal ended

GAME even have an app in which the ‘Player’ is able to see how many points they have gained and the cash value of those points which only entices the player to continue earning and spending money with that particular retailer to have those points. The app even allows the player to see if they have earned any accolades with them.
GAME achievements

Self-reflection of issues in 3D skillset

When confronting myself in regards to my current knowledge within 3dsmax naturally I noticed limitations within my modelling skills as this is something that I have always been slow with but tackling head on especially within my ‘Whitefriargate’ client project. This post is dedicated to self-assessment and how I intend to confront some issues that I have noticed since the beginning of my second year. I thought by addressing these issues I could show my development of my 3d skill and what I am managing to overcome with time and practice so that my current skills would have less implications on the group, myself and the final outcome of the project.

I would like to begin with my first issue, I know that in comparison to other individuals in my class and comparing myself in the past that my modelling is very slow and can be basic. I would like to argue that it is improving and that I am producing larger models at a faster rate although I am still not where I would like to be but in time I know this will naturally grow on its own when I become more confident with the software. Comparing my older models to things that I am producing now, I can see an improvement although I know I still have a lot of things to catch up on.

My second issue is that in the past, I have noticed that I tend to get lost when countering an issue and due to my way of learning I find it difficult to understand when people are explaining how to resolve it as I find they tend to be unclear or just confuse me further. My way around this has been to begin reading books and hope that I will be able to rely on them and diagrams to help me where videos and people have not.

My third issue has been understanding individuals in my class in regards to terminology as when they are explaining how to resolve issues that I have they may use terminology that I do not understand. This is still something I am in the process of trying to get to grips with yet the only way this issue can be fixed is by sticking my head in books and using online resources to help me gain a clearer understanding and to broaden my professional vocabulary.

So to sum up, I would like to add that I intend to use books to help enhance my knowledge and make me grow in regards to my 3d work. I would also like to add now that I have reflected on what kind of learner I am I can use this to my advantage and find ways of looking at information which will be clearer and that could hopefully be used to benefit others as well as myself. I have intentions to reflect on myself after the Christmas holidays so that I can compare work from now with work produced then and to give further suggestions to how and where I can improve.

Modularity – The benefits of modular design

I was reading ‘3D Game Textures, create professional game art using Photoshop‘ which is written by Luke Abearn. Within this he states the importance of Modularity not only when texturing but as a whole so I thought writing a blog post about this and how I tend to use it when designing my building may be useful. Modular design is seeing patterns within designs so that when creating textures and models, you can save time and energy just by repeating the pattern to create things such as large architecture or small offices, store fronts or even supermarket interiors.  By building to grid especially in Photoshop gives you a way to develop seamless textures with optimal results. Modularity expands to more than one or two aspects of game design such as level design, building design, texture design, asset design and the list goes on.


When individuals design buildings, they sketch up an idea and quite often notice elements of modularity. They tend to begin with large common and repetitive chunks then move onto smaller more unique parts such as decorations like pillars or radiators. Furthermore, when breaking down into the fundamentals of modularity, pieces are broken up into five sections which are considered when designing an environment. These are walls, floors, ceiling, inner corners and outer corners.

When designing my buildings for the Heritage project (which iv also referred to as the Whitefriargate project/Client project) and any additional projects using modularity will be useful for me as it will help me make more efficient, tidy models which will only benefit me and the project due to many factors, in which one in particular for me would be time constraints.  Another benefit of me using modularity within my project is that the buildings become easily expandable as all that has to be done is to clone the particular piece you want and it should, in theory,  fit nicely alongside the rest of the building.